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Aviation Assignment: Questions and Answers on Human Performance

s A1. Describe three possible causes of fatigue. Discuss one example of an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor, clearly outlining how fatigue contributed towards the accident outcome. Explain what good fatigue management looks like from both a pilot and an organizational perspective. Fatigue refers to the term, which assists in describing the by and large sentiment of sluggishness or in other words absence of energy. When an individual suffers from fatigue, and then he/she does not have any type of motivation or energy. Feeling sleepy can be a symptom of fatigue. Fatigue is a symptom of any condition, which requires medical treatment (Medicine Net, 2020). It can be included in the range of severity from mild to serious. Fatigue categorizes into two, which are physical and mental fatigue. In a pilot, fatigue may manifest by missed radio calls or inaccurate flying (Luo, 2020). The causes of fatigue are classified into three parts that are way of life factors, physical medical issue, and emotional well-being issues. Lifestyle factors include physical exertion, boredom, grief, no intake of a nutritious diet, intake of alcohol on a regular basis, lack of physical exercises, increase in emotional stress, lack of sleep, taking a different type of medications that is antidepressants, consumption of caffeine at a high amount, being overweight or obesity (Caldwell and Caldwell, 2016). Physical health conditions include anemia, cancer, diabetes, liver diseases, and some other infections such as cold and flu (Luo, 2020). Mental health issues may lead to fatigue such as anxiety, depression as well as seasonal affective disorder. Three possible causes of fatigue include: 1. Diabetes: In this disease, individuals face significant levels of sugar stay in the circulation system as opposed to entering the phones of the kid where it very well may be changed over into energy. 2. Anemia: It is the driving reason for weakness in women. The blood misfortune causes an iron inadequacy and requires the red platelets are required in light of the fact that they convey oxygen to the tissues and organs (WebMd LLC, 2020). 3. Not enough sleep: This cause may have a negative effect on focus and wellbeing. Grown-ups ought to get a limit of eight hours to rest each near. An example of an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor that is AT76, Lisbon Portugal 2016, an ATR 72-600 captain failed in competing the night landing because of weather conditions, and after that aircraft floated in the touchdown zone. Because of this, it bounces three times on the runway and is found in a damaged condition. It is followed by an unstable approach and intervention by the first officer. Thus, it describes the poor performance of Captain of the combination of fatigue at a repetitive failure to offer the bounce landing recognition along with the recovery training (Skybrary, 2020). There is no doubt that fatigue offers an appropriate contribution to the social along with the financial costs, which are related to the aircraft trauma. Comparison between the road accidents describes that variability of these appraisals is high and this inconstancy mirrors the challenges, which are related to the determination of accident that it is related to the fatigue and interrogate the accident database. There are five criteria, which relate to fatigue-related accidents includes extended driving hours, evidence of falling asleep, feeling tiredness, intake of alcohol, and night takeoff and landing (Dawson, Reynolds, Dongen, and Thomas, 2018). Fatigue may impair the driving execution and this prompts mishaps in various manners that these rules will not catch dependably. A combination of different factors whether it is situational and individual contributes to increased risk, which is involved in a fatigue-related crash. The enhanced risk may result in the combination of different features that is biological, lifestyle, and work (Lee and Kim, 2018). The strong biological need for sleep as well as going out at night may enhance the chance of fatigue and risk. For the drivers whether it is professional and long-distance, both decrease the sleep and increase working hours combination increase the fatigue and risk (European commission, 2020). The drivers are responsible for the fatigue associated with an accident because of unusual working hours. Additionally, drivers are reported to sleep fewer hours on average and because of this, individuals feel more tired. Apart from this, there is some other contributing factors related to fatigue towards the results of accidents include circadian adoption that is adjusted internal clock of the body because of shift pattern, sleep opportunities during the duty but at layover destinations (Lee and Kim, 2018). In addition to this other factor are emotional stress, lifestyle along with fitness, health, low as well as high workload, time on duty, and time awake because of duty (Skybrary, 2020). From the pilot point of view, good fatigue management looks like including the planning activities, which includes meals, sleep patterns while off-duty, making the most permitted rest breaks including naps, provide advice to a colleague if one of the crew members detect drowsily and alerting the colleague (Sieberichs and Kluge, 2016). The operator complies with the prescriptive flight as well as time limits of duty, which is defined by the regulator, and should manage the hazards related to fatigue using SMS processes, which assists in maintaining the other hazards as well. The administrator creates and executes the Fatigue hazard the executive’s framework, which is affirmed by the controller (Skybrary, 2020). To manage fatigue, the pilot needs to take adequate sleep to restore the waking function, should perform mental and physical work effectively which is driven by the circadian clock in the brain. The pilot needs to contribute to the workload to fatigue as well as degradation of performance whether it is physically and mentally. In addition to this, pilots need to adopt the regulatory framework to conduct the operations to maintain the safety level (Hiatt, Graham and Wykoff, 2015). However, on the other side, from an organizational perspective, the company needs to implement a Fatigue risk management system hat turns into an aspect of the wellbeing the board framework. Fatigue risks management system assists in collecting and examining the information associated with the alertness of the crew along with the operational performance data onto the flight (Skybrary, 2020). Utilize the CRM (crew resource management) training, which helps business organizations of promoting the awareness of fatigue along with sleep issues. In an organization, employees need to prioritize the change initiatives as well as create the roadmap for a change over time. They need to continue to work on strengthening the organizational culture and keep the conversation lines open (Day, 2019). A2. Discuss the importance of assertiveness and just culture within the aviation industry. Provide guidance as to how pilots can communicate at the right level of assertiveness as well as how managers should deal with human error, at-risk behavior, and reckless behavior. Assertiveness refers to communicating the needs, wants, feelings, beliefs along with the opinions to others with respect. When an assertive worker identifies the appropriate opportunity, which assists in bringing to the attention to their co-workers as well as management. This assertiveness is a necessary part of aviation safety. The aggressive people attack as well as avoid the opinion of other individuals. Being assertive describes as a core communication skill. Assertiveness in the aviation industry may assist in expressing the individuals effectively and it assists in respecting the rights along with the beliefs of others (Seedhouse, Brickhouse, Szathmary and Williams, 2019). It also assists in boosting and enhancing self-esteem as well as earn the respect for the others. In the aviation industry, assertiveness refuses to compromise the standards include the technician by giving the management to manage the feedback which is required to ensure that management will be capable to provide assistance to a technician to fulfill their job (Shearer, 2020). Culture is also essential in the aviation industry as the culture set by characteristics as well as the value system of the aviation industry. Three cultures that is national, professional, and organizational culture, as these assists in sett the interactions in different patterns that are sharing the information; personnel will react under the demanding operational conditions. Need to deliver effective training, different workgroups that are pilots, cabin crew will relate (Werfelman, 2020). However, in the aviation industry, there are some factors that have an influence on organizational culture and they are policies and procedures, safety planning and goals, employee training and involvement as well as safety planning and goals. The individual needs to assess the current norms along with the values of corporate culture in the aviation industry. In industry, staff needs to train to reconcile the social related clashes which happening in their air terminal on locally available airplane (Skybrary, 2020). Assertiveness demonstrates as communication along with the behavior style which provides permission to express the feeling, opinions, beliefs along with the needs in a positive as well as productive manner. It is related to direct conversation, offers respect to opinions, and should be honest but does not compromise to own standards. While doing communication between the appropriate levels of assertiveness, an individual should provide an effective focus on calmness and remain rational. This offers permission to maintain their dignity and appropriate conclusion can make (Skybrary, 2020). Pilots need to be assertive in nature and should state the situation in the face of adverse judgment as well as communicate the idea about good belief because it requires the appropriate level of assertiveness for the uncomfortable individuals. Pilots need to listen and analyze the situation and accordingly conduct the problem-solving communication, help others, share the goals along with the knowledge in flight operations. By using assertiveness, goals are shared and realize the effective conversation, which leads to offering respect for team members (Shearer, 2020). When pilots use appropriate communication skills in the assertiveness level, then it offers some advantages that offer the improvement in mutual respect to others, increases the self-esteem, decreases the alienating other individuals. While communicating with other individuals, pilots need to make effective eye contact which assists in demonstrating the interest and denotes sincerity (Alargi? and Atanasijevski-?uri?, 2018). Another is appropriate body posture, which helps in managing the body language, which aids in improving the significance of the message. Next is the best gestures, which aid in adding importance. Additionally, the pilot needs to manage an acceptable voice to effective judgment timing (Impact factory, 2020). When operational activities are no longer in schedule, activity arranging alongside the methodology of assigning duty just as checking of errands is clarified viably by precise correspondence (Alargi and Atanasijevski-?uri?, 2018). In the context of resource management of crew that is pilots, assertiveness describes the ability to manage the position and offer the information to make suggestions, ask the questions, refuse for the requests, which are unreasonable as well as accept the appropriate conservative response to a situation which helps in making the appropriate and final decision (Mouw, 2020). When pilots adopt assertive communication then they assist in addressing the human factor along with the cultural problems, which lead to different events. They need to implement new tools for existing models of practice (Vieira and Santos, 2010). Managers should deal with human error, at-risk behavior, and reckless behavior by using appropriate strategies. As each type of behavior has a different cause which requires different responses.In the aviation industry, staff members and managers get training for the specified roles so that overall, work competency improved and human error decreased (Diedrich, 2019). There are different error management areas such as risk, attitude, and communication, and situation awareness and these are managed by different tools that are assessing personal approach, gut feeling to recognize attitude, use guidelines on being assertive and a gut feeling that is something not right (Centre of error management, 2011). Some other techniques include error prevention, reduction, detection, recovery, and tolerance. Additionally, reduction of slips by using different controlling factors and reinforcing the standardized procedures (Muschara, 2017). Apart from this, need to manage the mistakes by knowledge, attention factors, and strategic factors (Skybrary, 2018). To manage the at-risk behavior, the manager should be honest as well as require eliminating the hindrances to safe the social decisions, taking out the prizes, which are generated from at-risk behaviors along with this offer the coaching to the managers to examine the risk which is associated with their choices (Dekker, 2016). While managing the at-risk behavior requires curing the framework disappointments just as unsaid prizes that are driving that conduct. The system needs to redesign so that they can make the right tools for the safest behavioral choice (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2020). Another is reckless behavior, which defines as a conscious disregard of an unjustifiable risk. To manage the reckless behavior manager needs to implement the appropriate remedial and disciplinary actions, which needs to be, considered as per the human resource policies of business organization, which help in correcting the undesired conduct (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2020). In addition to this, they need to redesign the system, which assists in protecting reckless behavior in the future(Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2012). A3. Describe a basic model of how humans process information. Discuss what limitations exist in terms of human memory and perception and provide examples of techniques to help compensate for such limitations. The human information processing model refers to the approach, which is related to the investigation of human idea just as conduct should develop. It describes as an alternative to the behavioral approaches. Human learning alludes to the region wherein a methodology related to information processing is successfully applied. Information processing theory refers to the cognitive theory, which utilizes PC handling as an allegory for the functions of a human cerebrum (Davies and Delaney, 2017). It describes the mental processes, as this model likes the considering measure how the PC works. In the PC, the brain of individual person learn, sorts out just as stores, which are to be recovered later. Also as a PC, it has a data contraption, planning unit, accumulating unit, and a yield device so the individual mind have the indistinguishable procedure or method (AlleyDog, 2020). Information is recorded in the computers by using the appropriate strategies for input contraptions anyway on the contrary side, in the person’s mind, the data device is known as the sensory recorder. As this recorder is prepared by the unmistakable organs such as ears from which they can hear and eyes from which they can see and collect the data from diversified elements, which is related to environment. In the computer, individual collect the data by using appropriate procedure that is set up in the Central Processing Unit and it is indistinguishable from transient memory. However, on the other side, mind of the individual person, information is manage with the objective and that information transfer to that part of memory, which remains for long term. The data should be processed in a computer, and then it displays the result by the output device. In humans, the result is associated with information processing display through behaviors along with the actions that are body movement and facial expression (Vinney, 2020). Figure 1: . Model of the human information processing system This model works when information enters into the sensory memory and grabs the attention. After that, information transfers to working memory and then encode the information and transfer of long-term memory. Information or data is stored in the working memory so that they work faster in long haul memory. As the working memory is essential for wide-ranging reading (Bielikova, 2012). It is identified that the procedure is accomplished in the working memory as it demonstrates as a significant characteristic related to the human mind as it is a small capacity of working memory. The limited storage capacity of working memory is accompanied by a brief duration, which results in the loss of information. The processing model of data refers to the framework, which is used by cognitive psychologists to explain as well as to describe the mental processes. Human memory is classified into different parts but the main is short and long-term memory. The limitations of short-term memory include that it is limited and store a small amount of information and another is memory decays over time. However, long-term memory could be unlimited and the main constraint are accessibility instead of availability. Some memories in the human body include the details and include take up more space. However, on the other side, there are some limitations include: Hearing: It is related to human senses and it includes the communication risk. From the threshold of hearing, ears are equipped for getting when there is no other sound to make it recognition. Touch: It is surprisingly unpredictable and incorporates the identification from pressure. It depends on the range of nerves when it responds to various forms of stimuli. This includes the perception of pressure and detects the sensation (Gonzalez, 2012). The memory of humans is fallible and forget the things all the time and then only interpretation left. The memory of most of the individual should not be trusted because they make their own. The brain of a human is an important and efficient organ, which assists in processing the power to figure out things, which they do not recognize. Another is individuals encode the memory in diversified ways as some individuals are more visible and factual (Murray, Wise and Graham, 2017). Another factor is the Rashomon effect as in this memory is highly susceptible to suggestion power. It creates emotional stress because the brain writes the memory with new information. In addition to this, another factor is the influence of emotion as it is a strong indicator of different things (Sims, 2016). The last issue is the perception of human sense is dependent on the human's perceptions. This describes that individuals dependent on a large part of what has been done to humans and it is related to the fallibility of memory and this leads to an effect on the self-image (Faulton, 2018). There are different techniques, which assist in compensating for the above-stated limitations includes breaking the big chunks of information or data into small. Use the checklists for the tasks with the different and multiple steps and develop as well as improve the routines. In addition to this, they need to continue the practice to improve the skills related to working memory. They need to make the experiment the different ways of remembering the information or data as need to make the effective visualization which assists in remembering the multiple items. Needs to reduce multitasking, which assists in shrinking certain areas of the brain and it linked to decrease spans. Utilize the mindfulness, which assists in decreasing distractions as well as sharpens the working memory by regulating the sensory input. This will help in decreasing the limitations of hearing and touch (De Frias, Dixon, and Backman, 2020). The humans need to follow when the compensatory processes assist in serving the losses through different identifiable mechanisms and techniques. It includes remediation, substitution, accommodation, and assimilation that is modifying the environmental demands. When these techniques implements, the behaviors of humans may decrease the gap between capacities and the challenges, which may change according to the contextual circumstances. These systems might be helpful for understanding psychological versatility whether it is identified with sickness or injury-related deficits. In addition to this, there are five other techniques, which helps in decreasing the limitations related to human memory and perception that is external aids, enhance the review related exertion. Additionally, inside memory aide procedures, and ought to contribute additional time just as to give communitarian assistance to humans (Bailey, 2020). Humans need to draw a few goals and objectives to understand the fallibility of memory. References Alargi?, D., and Atanasijevski-?uri?, K., (2018) ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION AS A WAY TO DEAL WITH STRESS. IN MILITARY PROFESSION, 209. Bailey, E, (2020). Improve Working Memory: Brain Training Tricks. Retrieved from: Bielikova, M., (2012).Model of human information processing system. Retrieved from: Brantner, C., (2019). The stages of sleep. Retrieved from: Caldwell, J., & Caldwell, J. L. (2016). 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